Có lẽ đây là một phần hướng dẫn không thừa dành cho những ai thực hiện đề tài nghiên cứu hay tiểu luận, mặc dù chúng ta ai cũng biết là phải làm mục lục tài liệu tham khảo ngay từ trên giảng đường đại học. Những ai chưa biết hoặc muốn xem lại lần nữa :D thì hãy nên xem phần dưới đây, các bạn nào làm đề tài in english, học các CT nước ngoài thì cũng nên xem nhé.
Ruby gửi các bạn phần hướng dẫn này, sưu tầm từ web của trường RB đang học, các bạn có thể tham khảo thêm hen.
Cite your references
Guidelines for citing references will be provided by your School of Faculty but the Library has produced a general guide to citations, based on the two most commonly used styles - the Harvard system and the Numeric system.
If you quote or make use of another writer's work, you must ensure that it is properly referenced. This is a standard academic practice intended to make sure that intellectual debts are duly acknowledged and to enable a reader to trace your sources.
There are two main methods for making citations and organizing references, namely the Numeric system and the Harvard system. Both have their advantages and disadvantages, but, whichever system you choose, you should stick to it and use it consistently.
It is vitally important that bibliographic references contain sufficient detail so that someone else can identify the work precisely. There are a few rules of thumb to follow.
For a book, the bibliographic reference should include
- author or editor(s) with initials or forenames
- title (underlined or in italics)
- edition (unless it is the first)
- date of publication
- page number(s) if referred to
These should be ordered as shown in the examples below. If there are three or more authors, you should give the name of only the first, followed by et al. ('et alia' meaning 'and others' in Latin).
For a journal article, the reference should include
- author(s) with initials or forenames
- article title
- full journal title (underlined or in italics)
- volume number
- date of publication
- page numbers
These should be ordered as shown in the examples below. Again, if there are three or more authors, you should give the name of only the first, followed by et al.
References to electronic resources must also include a note that it is electronic, its address (URL or otherwise) and, because much Internet material is unfixed or transient, the date when the material was accessed.
Many journals and some books are also now available in electronic format. Where the electronic version duplicates the paper version with the same pagination, etc., reference the item as paper.
Numeric System/British Standard (BS 1629: 1989) System
How the system works
Publications cited or referred to in the text are consecutively numbered, usually in superscript. For example:
In a recent study77 it was argued... However, other research78 suggests...References are then arranged in numerical order at the end of the text or chapter, or as footnotes. If you wish to refer to a particular page, you should do this in the reference itself. Examples are as follows.
77. Harrington, A. The placebo effect. 2nd ed. Harvard U.Pr., 1997. For a chapter in a multi-authored book:
78. Fee, E. & Brown, T.M. Making medical history. John Hopkins U.Pr., 1997, 18.
79. Harrington, R. The neuroses of the railway. History Today, 1994, 44, 15-21.
80. Adem, A. et al. Group representations. American Mathematical Society, 1998.
81. Hacking, I. Styles of statistical reasoning in McMullin, E. (ed.) The social dimensions of science. Univ.of Notre Dame Pr., 1992, 130-57.For an Internet site: Some conventions within the numeric system
If you are referring consecutively in the bibliography to the same work, it is usual to use the convention Ibid. (from the Latin word 'ibidem' meaning 'in the same place') in the following way.
83. Goldman, J.A. Building New York's sewers. Purdue U.Pr., 1997, 121. Similarly, you can refer back to an item which you have listed already using op. cit. (from the Latin 'opere citato' meaning 'in the work cited').
84. Ibid., 155.
85. Adem, A. et al. op. cit., 122. Harvard System
In this system, heavily used in the arts, humanities and social science literature, cited publications are referred to in the text by author's name and date of publication. This leaves numerical referencing free to use for footnotes. Examples are as follows.
In a recent book (Adem et al., 1998) it was argued...Publications with the same author and date of publication are differentiated by the addition of a letter.
In her recent book, Harrington (Harrington, 1997a) argued...If you are referring to a particular page(s), details should be given after the date, as follows.
(Fee & Brown, 1997, 125-8)Within this system, the full references in the bibliography are arranged in alphabetical order by author. Works by the same author are arranged according to date, and those with the same author and date, alphabetically by title, as follows.
Adem, A. et al. (1998) Group representations
. American Mathematical Society.
Bournemouth University Library. (2002) Guide to Citing Internet Resources
Available from: http://www.bournemouth.ac.uk/using_t...net_sourc.html
[Accessed 30 July 2002].
Fee, E. & Brown, T.M. (1997) Making medical history
. John Hopkins U.Pr.
Hacking, I. (1992) Styles of statistical reasoning in McMullin, E. (ed.) The social dimensions of science
. Univ. Notre Dame Pr., 130-57.
Harrington, A. (1997a) The placebo effect
. 2nd ed. Harvard U.Pr.
Harrington, A. (1997b) Placebos in clinical trials. Medical History
, 42, 116-31.
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